I think this part of the body is the one, most people struggle with. I dont like it either.
The good message, you can always check you own hands as reference.
The bones of the hand are tricky, but they follow the same rules as all bones. A bone cannot change it's form or go through another one. The arm is the static part in this study and we look at it from above. There's a mass of small bones in the wrist, but neither do we see them, nor do we need to.
The muscles of the hand are very small but the most prominent are two fleshy muscles of the palm.
The thumb muscle is actually attached to the middle finger, as well as the wrist.
The movement of the hand seems very complicated, but it follows strict mechanical rules. The illustration in the lower right shows that a hand turned to the max right/left side forms a straight line on the opposing side.
The fingers almost exclusively pull to to form a fist. They can be tilted sidewarts and pulled upwarts, but not much.
The thumb is a little different, since it can rotate. Imagine the thumb like a hinge. Looking at it from the front, it can move around in a 90° area.
Proportions and constructions: (upper right corner)
- Start with two same size boxes (slightly longer than square form) and cut off a little at the corners like shown or similar.
- The knuckles do not form a straight line, you can use a curve or the shown example.
- There's skin between the fingers which optically shortens the fingers. This is very important !
The middle finger is the landmark we need.
- The knuckle marks 1/2 of the hand.
- The 2nd knuckle is at 1/2 of the finger.
- The 3rd knuckle is at 1/2 of the rest.
- The index finger and the ring finger end at aproximately the same length.
- The pinky (knuckle to fingertip) is close in size to the middlefinger (skin between fingers to fingertip).
- The origin of the thumb lies lower than the knuckles, from above, as well as from the side.
- The straight thumb reaches the 2nd knuckle of the index finger.
- Pay attention to the folding of skin and deforming muscles.
- A fist looks different when you hold something like a sword.
- The first line of knuckles do not move, except the one of the ring finger and the pinky, but that's not much.
- The box used for the hand gets thicker to the wrist.